...

̳ / / / ϳ. / / / / /
→ 
→ 
→ 


Ͳ ˲. Automatic stabiliz-ers. , , , ' .
. Lump-sum taxes. , - , - .
Ҳ. Opportunity costs. , , .
˲ - Ȼ. Cost-benefit analysis. -.
. Antitrust policy. , - , .
(). Balance sheet - (, ), (), (- ) - - .
ʲ ̲.Fractional reserve banking. , , , . - - -
̲ Barter economy. , - ; .
' . Barriers to entry. - , - .
Ͳ. Poverty. ѳ' , 3 , ̳- '. , - , , , .
Perpetuity. ֳ , .
. Speculators. ' , , .
- . Deadweight bur-den of a tax , - , - , .
. Buffer stock. , - . - , - , -
Budget constraint - , - , '.

(). Gross domesticproduct (GDP). , - , - , .
ֲ (). Grossnational product (GNP). , , , . - ; , ( ). , .
² ֲ. Gross investment - , - . .
Ͳ Foreign exchange markets. , .
. Tangible wealth -, , - - ; ( ) .
Money marketfund .
() -. Complements. , .
(). Substitutes. , - .
Ͳ ˲. Commercial policy. - , , - .
ͲͲ Externality. -, - , -; .
. GNfP per capita. , .
Ͳ ò Intra-indus-try trade. , , , - 򳺿
. Increasingreturns to scale. ̲ ² .
( β). Workfare. , , , - .
ί . Time series. .
Ҳ Ҳֲ.Crowding in. , , , .
Ҳ ֲ. Crowding out , .
ó. Hyperinflation, , - 1000%.
ò Capture hypothesis. , - , , , - ( - ).
ò ֲ. Convergence hypothesis., , - , .
ò (ò Ȼ). Tiebout hypothesis (or invisible foot). , - , , , -.
Ͳ . Government purchases. , G.
вͲ . National debt .
Predatory pricing. ,
(PPF). Production possibility frontier (PPF) - , - , .
Բ Scatter diagram. .
. Two-part tariff. ѳ, , .
ֲ (² ). Income statement (or profit and loss state-ment). , ( -) .
ϲ. Dumping. ,
. Monetary base. ز Ҳ.
. Stock of money. -
Ͳ Monetary mechanism. , - .
˲. Money multiplier. - 1
ز. Money. - , - .
ز ϲί Ҳ (- ). High-powered money (or monetary base). , Fed
Բ . - Budget deficit or surplus. - - . - , . - , -

Բ Ͳ Ҳ. Fullemployment (or high-employment, or structural) deficit. Ͳ Ҳ.
Բ () . GNP gap. г - , . ϳ
, Ʋ () Balanceof payments deficit (or surplus) , - . . , -, , , , , - ,
Բ Currentaccount deficit , .
. GNP deflator. , - ,
ֲ. Deflation , , .
Բֲ. Diversification. - .
². Divedends. - (, ) -.
Ҳ Product differentiation.ѳ, - , .
. Value added. , .
ֲ Ҳ. Long-runbreak-even price , - . - LAC
в Long run. , - , ' , , .
. Dollar standard. . - .
(). Revenue. -.
. EuropeanMonetary System. , - , - .
Unit of account , - ( - ).
˲. Natural monopoly. , ' , .
Natural rate ofunemployment , '
Ͳ () ʲ ² - Age-earnings profile. ' -.
Ͳ Բ Fisher relationship. , - . , .
Okun's law. , - 2,7% , () () .
Law of demand. ó, . . -, .
ί ²ײ. Law of diminishing returns. , , - , - (, ) -
Legal tender. , , .
Right-to-worklaws. , , , - ,
Closed shop. , - .
̲ Import substitution. - -. .
Inventories. , . - , , - .
. Land. , -, , -
. Gold standard. , ' , .

. Costs. , -; . , .
. Consumers 'surplus. г , , , . .
. Producers 'surplus. - .
(). Depreciation. - , / . - , - - , - .
ֲ Invention and innovation. . - ; - - .
. Import , -
ֲ. Investment .
ֲ . Investmenttax credit , , ' -.
ֲ . Investment demand - .
ֲ. Price index. ( ) , 100.
ֲ Indexation , .
² ϲȪ Individualproprietorship. Գ, , - , -
. Inflation tax. , - - , .
ϲ˲ ̲. Capitalisteconomy. , (- ) , - . - . - , , .
. Cartel -, '.
Quota ( ) - - .
Ѳ . Keynesian model. B - , , - -, .
. Classical model. , - - . - -.
ʳ . Quantity theory ofmoney. , - -.
̲ Command economy. -, .
ֲͲ . Commercial banks. Գ, - -, .
Ͳ Communism. B , , , - , . - - ' - , , - 䳺 , - .
ʳ . Final goods and services. , - .
ֲ. Corporation , , - , .
ֲ. Short-runsupply curve. , - .
ֲ - Short-run shutdown price. ̳ , - -; .
² Ͳ (MC). Short-run marginal cost (MQ, - .
² (). Short-run average total costs (). ; (AVC) (AFC)
в Short run , -


Ͳ ز. IOU money. , - .
. Lender of lastresort , , . - .
ֲ. Long-runsupply curve. , , .
( LMC). Long-run marginal cost curve (LMCcurve). , - , , , ( ) - .
(в- LAC). Long-run average cost curve QAC curved -, - - .

Lorentz curve. - .
ֲ. Supply curve. - ; , -, .
(ֲ) ί Ͳ.Aggregate supply curve (or schedule). ' , , .
(TF). Total product (TP) curve. .
(ֲ) Aggregatedemand curve (or schedule). - , - , .
Demand curve - ; , , . , , .
Գ Phillips curve. , .
Ҳ. Debt crisis. , - , -, -, - .
˲²Ͳ. Liquidity. , , - -.
Ҳ . Personal savings. - , .
Personal disposableincome. ; , - .
() .
Kinked (oligopoly) demand curve. -, , - , , .
̲. Macroeconomics. -
Macroeconomicpolicy. ij , .
Malthusian trap. ó, , - . - .
Median. - - ; , .
̲Ͳ Ͳ . Internationalreserves. - , - .
̲ (). International Monetary Fund (IMF). ̳ -, 1945 . - , - , - .
̲̲ Microeconomics. - , , , .
̲Ͳ Minimum wage̳ , .
̲Ͳ ̲ Ҳ Minimum efficient scale - , .
² World Bank ̳ , - 1945 . - - - . - - , - , ' .
(в). Model theory. .
. Monopolisticcompetition. , - , .
˲ ( ˲). Monopoly (or monop-olist). -
( ). Monopolypower (or market power). , , , .
. Monopoly profits. ,

Monopsony. - \
Moral hazard ', , - , , , - .
˲. Multiplier. - - .
˲ .Balanced budget multiplier. , , , .
Ҳ. Currency. , - . ' .
Ҳ (VAT). Value-added tax (VAT). , , , 䳿 .
Ͳ Merit goods. , - .
ֲ ղ. National income , - - , .
. Adverse selection. , , , .
. Sunk costs. - , - ; , , , , -, - .
ֲ .Unplanned inventory investment , , - ; , .
. Retained earnings. , , .
Imperfect competition.ѳ, - , .
Ͳ ' Nontariff barriers. - , .
. Inferior good , . , , , '.
Newly industrial-ized countries. , , - ; , , -, .
. Unemployment rate ³ , ,
Ҳ. Employment rate ³ - , .
ֲ. Inflation rate -ֲ. ' ². Required reserve ratio.
' , - ' , .
(²ײ ֲ). Rate ofreturn. , , '- ; - .
² ( ). Interest rate, . - . . ( ) - .
Ҳ Participation rate ³ , , , .
Ͳ Normal good , . -, , - .
̲ (). Exchange rate , , , - 0,50 0,01 .
² ˲ֲ (). Logrolling., , : - .
(² ). Total condi-tion (or profit check), , - , - .
. Public good , - , - .
' IJ . Risk poolingand risk spreading. , , - (' ) - ( ).
ֲ Quantity supplied ʳ ( ), - ; - , , - , , -.
. Quantity demanded ʳ (- ), ; , , .
˲˲. Oligopoly. , , , -
ֲ Ҳ .Current account transactions. - , ,

, - .
ֲ ² Open market opera-tion.
Optimalpositive output г , 򳺿 , - .
² ֲ. Relative price ֳ ; .
̲ ² (- ). Diseconomies ofscale (or decreasing returns to scale). , - .
. Negativeincome tax , - , .
³ ֲ. Discouraged workers. , , - .
² Alienation. -  . ³ .
ԲֲͲ Ͳ ֲ. Official reservetransactions. .
. Paradox of thrift -, , , , , - .
(). Partnership. Գ, - , - . () - - , .
. Patent - ( - 17 ).
Ͳ Primary factorsof production , , .
Ͳ Cross price elasticity of demand. ' 1% .
̲Ͳ (VC). Variable costs (VQ. -, . , -, .
̲ (). Variable input (or fac-tor). Գ - .
IJ Personal dis-tribution of income. -
- -, ' .
Ҳ Balance of payments. - ( , -) .
Ͳ. Utility. , - - .
˲ IJ. Incomes policy. - ,
˲ .Tax-based incomes policy (TIP). , - -˳ .
, ͲSupply-side policies. , .
˲ ˲ֲ. Stabilization policy. - , , .
Ҳ. FuD employment , ; , - - . ³ - , -  -, , .
() Բֲ Ͳ (ί, ί) Ҳ Full employment (or high-employment, orstructural) surplus or deficit - , , - .
() Balance of payments surplus Բֲ
. Current account surplus. .
Unemployment benefits. -, , , -, .
ҲͲ (). Fixed inputs (orfixed factors). , , , .
ҲͲ (FC). Fixed costs (FQ. -, - . , .
Ҳ Constant returns toscale. , - .
ֲ Potential output г -, - .
Ҳ Ҳ. Cash flow.
, .
ϲ. Capital flows. ³ - - , - . ( ) , - .
(MRP). Marginal revenueproduct (MRP). - . , - , MRJP, , - (MVF).
. Marginal tax rate Ta , .
(MRS). Marginal rateof substitution (MRS). MRS (MRSA ^) -, - , , , , - , .
ֲ (MRT). Marginalrate of transformation (MRT). MRT (MRTAB) - , , , , - , - .
. Marginal utility. - - .
(MPC). Marginal propensity to consume (MPQ. , - - 1
(MPS). Marginal propensity to save (MPS). MPQ -, - 1
Ͳ (MC). Marginal costs (MC). - - .
˲. Marginal analysis. - , - . - .
ղ (MR). Marginal revenue (MR). - - , .
(MP). Marginal product (MP). - - .
ί ղҲ Necessity. , - , .
Luxury. , .
( ղ). Profit (net income). .
ί Ҳ. Equity, vertical , ', -, -
ί ˲Ҳ.Equity, horizontal , ', - , .
в ϲ Capital gains. , , , - , , - .
Ͳ.Progressive tax structure , - .
˲ . Duration ofunemployment , -
Ͳ ֲ. Labor productivity. ' .
. Derived demand. , - ( ) .
ֲ. Production function. , .
. Intermediate product - , - .
. Cross section data - - (, , , , ) .
. Interest rate. .
вͲ в. Ricardian equivalence , , , - , , , .
г . Equilibrium price ֳ, .
в Equilibrium quantity.
Personal consump-tion expenditures. ; -.

. Real money stock - .
. Real wage , - ; , , - . - - ,
ֲ. Real price - - () - , , , -.

Ͳ Real income , - , , , - .
. Regressivetax structure , - - .
Ҳ .Current account adjustment - - .
() (). Managed (or dirty) floating. - , 䳺 , - B , -, , .
KyTC.Adjustable peg. Գ - , .
ֲ. Labor hoarding. Գ - , - , - .
ֲ ʲ. Commercial banksreserves. , - ' -.
Rent г , - . - .
. Appreciation. - .
Market , - () ().
. Collusion. - -
ֲ . Safety net , .
˲Ͳ ز. Token money. , - - .
. Exchange rate system , . - - - . - , , , . - , 1973 , - , -
ʲ (- ). Income velocity of money (orvelocity). ,
.
̲ ̲. Mixed economy. B , ( ) , . - .
. Decreasingreturns to scale ̲
ϲ Equity. , - , -. Equity (fairness).
Բ. Perfectly com-petitive firm. Գ, .
Perfectly com-petitive market , , , 䳺
. Labor force B - 16 , , .
Aggregate demand. г , .
Ҳ. Present value , , , .
ֲͲ. Comparable worth. , ,
ֲ˲ ̲. Socialist economies., 䳺 . ( ) ( ).
ֲ Social regulation. - , - , , - .
ֲ . Social insurance - , ,
ֲͲ ² ˲. Social costof monopoly. , - ; - , - , -.
. Comparative advan-tage , -.. ³ , - .
(AVC). Average vari-able cost (AVQ. '.
(AFC). Average fixed

cost (APQ. ³ - .
(). Average totalcost (). ³ -; .
(). Mean. , ; - .
Ͳ (AP). Average product (AP). ³ '- , .
. Average tax rate .
- . Savings andloans (S & Ls). , - , -.
Ʋ (Ͳϲ). Rental rate (of capital). ֳ . - , - - .
. Stagflation. , - - .
˲ֲ Sterilization. - () - , -, -.
. Risk-averse behavior. ; - , - , .
. Export subsidy. - .
ϲ. Capital account -, .
в Tangency equilibrium.
-, - .
. Tariff. ; , - .
. Growth rate - (, ) .
() ֲ Inflation rate - .
в. Theory. .
в (PPP). Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory., , - .
в ʲ. Theory of efficientmarkets. , -
, .
Ͳ Technical progress. , - . -.
ò (Ͳ) ҲTechnical efficiency. - , , - - - - - , - ( ).
Ͳ ز. Commodity money. , - .
Ͳ Ʋ (). Transferpayments (or transfers). ﳺ.
в Ҳ. Labor theory of value , 곳 XIX . - .
Unit labor cost
. Diminishingmarginal utility. , , -.
̲ ֲ. Unit labor cost. ..
(ֲ) в ֲ. Equalizing (or compensating) differential г , - .
в ֲ ֲ Seller concen-tration. , - .
в ֲ. Price level , , - , ; , .
˲ Discount rate , - Fed , .
. Factors of production. - (, , , , , ), - .
(FTC). FederalTrade Commission (FTC). , ̳
33KOHOAaI1CAbCTBO.
ͲDz (FDIC). Federal Deposit InsuranceCorporation (FDIC). , - .
(Fed). Federal

Reserve (Fed). . , - , .
(FOMC). Federal Open MarketCommittee (FOMC). - - , - , - .
Բ () ϲ. Physicalcapital (, -, ), .
Բ . Current account financing. - .
Բ Ͳ. Financial panic , - - , - . , .
Բ² ֲ Financial innovations. , - .
Բ Financial intermediary. -, , - .
Բ ˲. Fiscal policy. г, - .
. Money market fund - , , - , . - , .
ֲ IJ .Functional distribution of income - , .
ֲ . Consumption function. - -.
ֲ () ֲ. Supply schedule. - -, , -, .
ֲ () . Demand schedule -' , , , - .
' . Futures markets. , - .
. Hedgers. , ' , .
ֲ . Asset price ֳ, (-, ) (, ).
ֲ Ҳ Break-even price ֳ, - -. .
ֳ . Price discrimination. - ,
βIJ˲ . Pricemakers versus price takers. - , -; -, .
. Cyclicalwage component , 䳿 . - - .
. Private good , -, , , -
ϲ Human capital. - - . , .
Net eco-nomic welfare - - - .
Ҳ Ͳ Net foreign assets. - , , , .
Ҳ . Net taxes. , , -, .
ֲ . Net national prod-uct (NNP).
. Net export , - , , , . , .
. Econometrics. , .
̲ ² . Free-marketeconomy. , .
Economics. ̲ в.
̲ Ͳ. Economic mobility. , - '
̲ ̲. Economic variable , , , , - .
̲ . Economic profit. г - ( )
̲ . Economic rent. -, -

- .
̲ в (). Economics. , -, , . - ' - . - , , , . - , . ' , .
̲ Ͳ (
Ͳ ). Economic efficiency (or Pareto efficiency). , , ' , - . .
̲Ͳ Ͳ Economic data. , , - .
̲ Export-led growth. , -,
̲ (IJ) . Business cycle. -- () () , (-) .
̲ Economic regulation. , - , - (, - )
̲ ² ( ). Economies of scale (or increasing returns toscale). , .
. Exports, - .
Ͳ ֲ. Elasticity of supply.
1%, , - , .
Ͳ (Ͳ ֲ). Elasticity of demand (or price elasticity ofdemand). , 1%, -, , ., , . -, . - , .
Income elasticityof demand. , 1%.
Income effect Ta - , - .
² . Okuns leaky bucket - , ' .
̲. Substitution effect - ' .
Bracket creep. , , . ,
Ͳ . Pareto efficiency. .̲ Ͳ.
ͲͲDz ϲȪ, Union shop.
ϳ, - .
...
= =
, ""
  1. , -'
    . - . . ϳ - ,
  2. , '.
    , '. , . , ? - . , -
  3. 4). () (substi-tutes) - ,
    4). () (substi-tutes) - , - (. 4). ( ) (demand deposits) - -, (. 27). (market power) -
  4. 16). (discrimination) - , -
    16). (discrimination) - , - , -, , , - (. 19). - (labor-force participation rate) - -
  5. 28). (inflation) - (. 1). (excludability)
    28). (inflation) - (. 1). (excludability) - -, , - (. 11). (capital) - , -, (. 18). (cartel) - (. 16).
  6. 21).M ( )(Macroeconomics) - -,
    21). M ( ) (macroeconomics) - -, , - (. 2, 22). ̳ ( ) (unit of account) - - ' (. 27). ̳ ( )
  7. 27). (normal good) - ,
    27). (normal good) - , (. 4,21). (normative state-ments) - , - (. 2). (bond) - , ' (. 25).
  8. 12). (natural resources) - - - , ,
    12). (natural resources) - - - , , , - (. 24). (progressive tax) - , , - , , , (. 12).
  9. 25). (market economy) - -, - ,
    25). (market economy) - -, - , - 䳿 (. 1). (collusion) - (. 16).
  10. 10). (in-kind trans-fers) - ,
    10). (in-kind trans-fers) - , (. 20). (diminishing mar-ginal product) - , - (. 13, 18).
...
...
      -